Garfinkel Essay Scholarship Resources

You, the Voter
How Far Have We Come? Is the Journey Over?


Trace how voting, once the privilege of the elite, became the right of all citizens. Discuss the American journey to “one person, one vote” or focus on how a specific group or groups of Americans won the vote.


Are some state legislatures limiting “one person, one vote” by passing laws that act as barriers that make voting difficult for some citizens?


How do state legislatures enhance or diminish the principle of “one person, one vote” by redrawing voting districts? Is there a better way?

Below is a list of resources in a searchable table. Search using question topic: winning the right to vote, barriers to voting, or election district boundaries.

Fear of Gridlock Coming True for New York’s Redistricting Panel

The Albany Times Union In 2014, a constitutional amendment passed that reformed the state's redistricting process -- though critics had ...
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America’s Flawed Democracy: The Five Key Areas Where It is Failing

The Guardian This article examines the "five most glaring flaws exposed during the [2020] election cycle." It recognizes that some ...
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Early Voting Lines are so Long, People are Fainting. That Harms Democracy

The Guardian In Georgia, some voters had to wait over two hours to cast their ballot in the heat. The ...
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Drawing the Line on the Most Gerrymandered District in America

The Guardian The Supreme Court will review the long-running battle over line-drawing, but many fear that voters' voices may be ...
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Securing Indian Voting Rights

Harvard Law Review This article asserts that Indians routinely face hurdles in exercising the right to vote and securing representation ...
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50 Years of the Voting Rights Act: An Asian-American Perspective – Timeline & Report

Asian Americans Advancing Justice An article describing how the 1965 Voting Rights Act addressed voting discrimination against Asian-Americans, along with ...
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Woman’s Suffrage Timeline

National Women's History Museum A detailed timeline of the struggle for women's suffrage. Read More ...
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Racial Quotas in Partisan Gerrymandering

University of Cincinnati Law Review An in-depth look at gerrymandering. Read More ...
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The New Attack on Hispanic Voting

The New York Times Magazine How tactics to suppress minority voting flourished following the 2013 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Shelby ...
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Native Americans Move to Frontlines in Battle Over Voting Rights

Reuters A growing number of Native Americans have become embroiled in court battles over changes to voting laws. Read More ...
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Citizenship, Voting, and Asian-American Political Engagement

U.C. Irving Law Review An article on how citizenship verification and electoral district boundaries impede voting by Asian Americans. Read ...
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Section 2 of Zero-Sums: How SCOTUS Misconstrued Voting Rights Act, Limits Minority Representation, and Pits Minorities Against Each Other

Stanford Law Review The author claims that the U.S. Supreme Court misconstrued the Voting Rights Act, limiting minority representation and ...
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Protecting Voting Rights of American Indians and Alaska Natives: Video

U.S. Department of Justice Attorney General Eric Holder criticized election practices that adversely affect the ability of American Indian and ...
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Hispanic American Invisible No More: The Latino Struggle for Civil Rights – Timeline

National Education Association A Latino Civil Rights Movement Timeline: From 1902 to 2009. Read More ...
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U.S. v. Susan b. Anthony: The Fight for Women’s Suffrage

Federal Judicial Center In the federal election in November 1872, Susan B. Anthony, a New York advocate of women's suffrage, ...
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Drawing the Line: How Redistricting Turned America from Blue to Red

The New Yorker This New Yorker article examines the history of gerrymandering and David Daley's book Ratf*cked, which examines the legacy of the Redmap ...
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Politicization of Voting Laws: The Impact of Voter IDs and Other Restrictions

Harvard Civil Rights - Civil Liberties Law Review This article suggests that although the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Shelby decreased the ...
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Jim Crow in New York

Brennan Center for Justice This article focuses on the historical disenfranchisement of African-Americans in New York. Read More ...
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A Dream Undone

The New York Times An in-depth article on the circumstances that led to the 1965 Voting Rights Act and the ...
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Understanding Congressional Gerrymandering: ‘It’s Moneyball Applied to Politics’ – Audio & Transcript

NPR An interview with David Daley, author of a book about the 2010 Republican efforts to target state legislative seats ...
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The House Isn’t Competitive in 2016. But Gerrymandering is on Trial

The Washington Post A short article indicating that supporters of taking politics out of redistricting got a win when the ...
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What’s Behind the Voter Fraud Witch Hunt?

Brennan Center for Justice This article examines whether the voter fraud allegations that underlie the new voter identification laws are ...
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A History of Voting Rights: Video

The New York Times A video on the significance of the 1965 Voting Rights Act produced in reaction to the ...
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Campaign 2016 and Voting Rights: Video

C-SPAN This video focuses on the 2016 election and voting rights, including court cases on voter identification laws and the ...
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The Redistricting Game

USC Annenberg Center for Communications "The polarization and poisonous atmosphere that have infected the House of Representatives for the past ...
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Voter Identification Requirements

National Conference of State Legislatures A descriptive listing of the states with voter identification laws. Read More ...
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Milestones in Voting History: Timeline

CUNY This illustrated timeline adds context to the history of the expansion of the right to vote. Read More ...
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Gerrymandering: How Drawing Jagged Lines Can Impact an Election – Video

TED-Ed From "packing" a district to "cracking" a district, learn how the shape of districts impacts political parties during election ...
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The Supreme Court’s Identity Crisis on Voting Rights

The New York Times Linda Greenhouse notes that the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Shelby has cut the heart out of ...
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The Fight for the Right to Vote: Video

TED-Ed This video from Technology, Entertainment and Design (TED) traces the history of the right to vote in the United ...
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Judges Find Wisconsin Redistricting Unfairly Favored Republicans

The New York Times A panel of judges found Wisconsin's 2011 remapping to be unconstitutional. Read More ...
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How New Voter ID Laws May Affect the 2016 Presidential Contest: Video

PBS Since the Shelby decision, States no longer to have clear changes to voting laws with the Department of Justice. This has ...
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Voting Rights: Timeline

Northern California Citizenship Project A detailed timeline of the history of the expansion of the right to vote. Read More ...
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