Shortly after the implementation of the 1629 Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, conflict arose between the Dutch West India Company and the patroons over the latter’s participation in the fur trade. The Company claimed a monopoly on this very profitable business, but the patroons countered that under the 1629 Charter, the Company did not have the right to prohibit their participation in the pelt trade. Clashes occurred also between the Company and the patroons over civil powers and duties. The Dutch parliament quickly recognized that some aspects of the 1629 Charter must be amended if New Netherland was to thrive. The 1638 Articles and Conditions, enacted on September 2nd of that year, opened trade to merchants of all friendly nations, subject to a 10% import duty, a 15% export duty and the requirement that all merchandise imported to or exported from New Netherland be carried on ships belonging to the Dutch West India Company.